Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 43 (1) March 2015
Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S) to Patagonia (55ºS). The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limarí rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045), polymorphism (13.9%) and allele per locus (1.19) are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.
Author: Claudia B. Cárcamo, Nelson F. Díaz & Federico M. Winkler

© 2015 Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research